Sunday, August 20, 2017

Hausa da Hausanci a Ƙarni na 21 – Ƙalubale da Madosa


Hausa da Hausanci a Ƙarni na 21 – Ƙalubale da Madosa



Abdalla Uba Adamu


Department of Informationand Media Studies

Faculty of Communications

Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria





Gabatarwa

A duk faɗin tarayyar ƙasar Najeriya, babu al’ummar da ta fi ta Hausawa samun ƙalubale a kan salsalarta da rayuwarta. Ba wani abu ne ya janyo haka ba illa albarkar da Allah Ya yi wa Hausa da Hausanci, ya zamanto ko ƙaƙa mutum wanda ba Bahaushe ne ba ya yi gogayya da Hausawa, ya iya Hausa, to shi kam zai ɗauki kansa ne a matsayin Bahaushe. Wannan ya saɓa da yadda shi Bahaushen ya kan ɗauki kansa, domin komai jimawar da ya yi a wani wuri, to shi har abada a matsayin Bahaushe zai ɗauki kansa, ba ɗan mazauna wurin ba. Abin da ya janyo haka kuwa shi ne ganin yadda ƙasar Hausa ta zama daɗaɗɗiyar cibiyar ciniki tsakanin baƙaƙen fatan Afrika na Sudan da kuma Larabawa, wanda ya sa ƙasar Hausa ta zama wajen zaman mutane da ƙabilu da yawa domin cinikayya. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna waje ɗaya bane; daga Kano zuwa Gwanja, zuwa Salo da Kamaru da Kwango, duk babu inda Hausawa basu ratsa sun kafa sansani ba. Amma tushen su ƙasar Hausa domin nan suke dawowa, komai dogon zangon su. A dawowar ne suka dawo da sababban abubuwa na ɗabi’u da tadodin al’ummatan da suka haɗu da su, suka narkar da waɗannan su zama nasu, har ma ta kai a dinga kokwanton ko a kwai Bahaushe na asali.

Sannan kuma Hausa (yaren), Hausawa (masu yaren) da kuma Hausanci (aƙidar masu yaren) sun samu wani babban ƙalubale a wannan ƙarni na 21 da muka shigo, ba don komai ba sai don ganin yadda igiyar sauyin halayen al’umma suka shafi gundarin rayuwar Bahaushe. Wannan igiyar kuwa ta taho ne da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani wanda sukan kawo mana salo da yanayin rayuwar waɗansu al’ummatai na duniya waɗanda wani lokaci muka ga kamar akwai kamanceceniya a salon rayuwarsu da namu. A ƙoƙarin kwaikwayon waɗannan al’ummatan ne ake samun babban ƙalubale a rayuwar Bahause ta zamani ta hanyar rubutaccen adabin zamani – ko littattafai ko kuma finafinai – domin wannan ita ce babbar hanyar da ake haskaka rayuwar al’ummatai kuma a`ke wakiltarsu.

Bugu da ƙari, nazarin Hausanci sai ya bambanata da nazarin rayuwar al’ummatai (Anthropology) ta yadda kusan kullum an fi karkata ga yaren Bahaushe, maimakon sauran fannonin na rayuwarsa. Sannan kuma ko a nazarin zamantakewarsa, an fi damuwa da haihuwa, rayuwa, mutuwa da bukukuwansa, watau tadodinsa, amma ba aƙidarsa, watau al’adarsa ba.

A wannan jagoran bayanin, zan yi ƙoƙarin in fayyace salsalar Bahaushe da kuma fito da gundarin aƙidarsa domin fahimtar yadda Bahause yake, da kuma yadda yakamata a wakilce shi ta kowacce hanya in ana son a yi masa adalci.

Bahaushe, Daga Ina Haka?

Babban abin da za a fara tambaya a nan shi ne, wai shin wanene Bahaushe? Wannan tambayar tana da ban mamaki domin ganin cewa babu wata ƙabila da ake tantamar salsalarta a Najeriya. Misali, idan aka ce Yarabawa, an san waɗanda a ke nufi. Amma da zarar ka ce Hausawa, sai a fara musu domin ana ganin yawan gaurayar al’ummatai, da kuma iya yaren Hausa na mutane da yawa ya sa bama za a iya cewa ga Bahaushe ba. Wannan tunani ya ƙarfafu a bisa nazarin wani mai nazarin harshe da ake kira Joseph Greenberg, wanda ya rasu a Amurka ranar 7 ga Mayu, 2001 yana ɗan shekara 85. A turbar nazarin da ya gina, Greenberg ya jagoranci ra’ayin cewa babu wata ƙabila Hausawa, domin su kansu Hausawan, a wajensu kalmar “Hausa” tana nufin yare – misali zaka ji mutum ya ce “bana jin Hausar wancan mutumin” – watau a nan, Hausa yare ce kenan.

Sannan kuma kusan kowannen Bahaushe zaka ji ya ce da kai ai shi ainihin iyayensa Fulani ne, Buzayene, Barebari ne, da dai sauransu. Amma kuma in ka tambaye shi ko yana jin wancan yaren na waɗannan mutanen, sai ya ce da kai baya ji. Wannan shi ke daɗa dagula Hausa da Hausanci, a rasa ma wai shin wanene Bahaushen.

A wani hasashen an danganta samun ƙabilar Hausawa da auratayyar al’ummatai daga Afrika ta Arewa inda zaunannun waɗannan wurare suka gauraya da buzaye, sannan aka samu Hausawa. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne a tsakanin 1050 da 1100.[1] 

Amma kuma wani manzarcin ya ƙalubalanci wannan hasahen inda ya ce babu wata tabbatacciyar hujja da ta nuna samun Hausawa bisa wannan auratayyar al’ummatan. A ganin wannan manazarcin, in an ce “Ƙasar Hausa” to ana nufin yankin da ake magana da yaren “Hausa”, ba wai wata ƙabila ba.[2] Sauran ra’ayin manazarta suma sun ginu ne a kan wannan ra’ayin. Ta haka, misali, Niven ya ce kalmar “Hausa” asalinta ta Buzaye ce, domin da wannan sunan suke kiran duk wanda ya fito daga arewancin kogin Kwara.[3] A wannan nazarin, Hausa kalma ce wadda Buzaye ke kiran duk baƙar fatar da ke inda Larabawa ke kira Sudan. Abin mamaki, ita wannan kalmar ma tana nufin mutanen Abyssinia, watau Habasha, wanda wannan ya kawo hasashen cewa Hausawa daga Habasha suke; yanzu kam mun gane cewa kiran Hausawa da Hausa, da kuma kiran Habashawa da Hausa, duk aikin Buzaye ne.[4] Sannan kuma yin amfani da kalmar ma ƙasƙanci ne na wariyar launin fatan da Buzaye ke yi wa ɗuk wani baƘi. Misali, tunda Hausa tana nufin Bahaushe da kuma Bahabashe, sai a ka samu wata danganta ta yadda a harshen Habashanci, “habshi” na nufin haushin kare. Saboda haka a wajen Buzayen wancan lokacin, duk wanda ke magana da waɗannan yarurrikan to Bahabshi ko Bahaushe ne.[5] A taƙaice dai an daidata furucin Hausa da haushin kare, wanda kuma su Hausawa suna yin haka ga waɗansu ƙabilun inda in mutum baya jin Hausa, sai su ce, “bagware ne”.

Skinner kuwa cewa yayi kalmar “Hausa” ta fito daga mutanen Songhai (inda Mali take yanzu) ne, domin sune suke kiran duk ƙauyukan da ke gabas da su hausa ko aussa, daga nan ne su “Hausawan” suka ari wannan kalmar suke kiran kansu da ita[6] – watau kafin wannan basu da wani suna da suke kiran kansu!

Sannan kuma manzartan tarihin ƙasashen Larabawa sun ziyarci ƙasar Hausa amma duk a rubutunsu, basu ambaci kalmar “Hausa ba” a matsayi sunan ƙabilun da suka haɗu da su. Marubuta kamar su Leo Africanus wanda ya ziyarci ƙasar Hausa wajen ƙarni daga 1513 zuwa 1515, bai ambaci mutanen da sunan Hausawa ba, sai dai ya ce “Mutanen Kano”, “Mutanen Katsina”, da sauransu. Yarensu kuma sai ya ce suna magana da yaren “Mutanen Gobir”.

Wannan ya nuna cewa jimlar kalmar “Hausa” a matsayin nuni ga wata ƙabila sabon abu ne wanda bai wuce shekaru 400 ba. Amma kuma akwai daulolin Hausawa da masarautun Hausawa da ake magana da harshen Hausa fiye da shekaru 1000 da suka wuce. Idan haka ne, ashe Hausanci ba a yaren ya tsaya ba, akwai ƙabila wacce take da salsala. Maƙala suna “Hausawa” a matayin masu magana da yaren “Hausa” abu ne wanda waɗansu suka yi wa Hausawan, amma basu Hausawan da kansu ba, kamar yadda Hausawa ke cewa da ƙabilar Igbo na Najeriya “Inyamurai”, wanda kuma ba haka su Igbo suka kiran kansu ba.

Saboda haka ko da lokacin da Leo Africanu ya zo Kano, daular Kano ta yi fiye da shekaru 500 da kafuwa, kuma da Hausa ake tafiyar da ita. Ashe Hausanci ba yare ne ba, akwai ƙabila Hausa. A nan nafi karkata ga Muhammad Sani Ibrahim inda ya ce, Hausa suna ne da yake da ma’anar Harshe, da mutanen da suke magana da shi, da kuma ƙasar da ake magana da shi.[7]

Saboda haka sai mu koma tambayar farko, shin wanene Bahaushe? Amsar a nan ita ce duk wanda salsalarsa babu wani yaren iyaye sai Hausa, to shi ne Bahaushe. Idan a jerin iyaye da kakanni akwai wanda ba Bahaushe bane, to kai ma ba Bahaushe bane. Na aro wannan ma’aunin bisa cewa Hausanci ƙirar halitta ce, ba lafazi ba. Misali, a ƙasar Turawa, in a cikin iyaye da kakanninka akwai baƙar fata, to ko kafi madara fari a matsayin baƙar fata kake.

A wannan ma’aunin, babu maganar zama a wata al’umma da kuma sanin yarenta, domin ka zama ɗan wannan al’ummar (a nan, ƙabilar). Misali, duk iya larabcin baƙar fatan da ya zauna a garin Makka, ba za a taɓa kiransa Balarabe ba, ba wai kawai don akwai banbancin tsakakin fatar Balarabe na aihini da baƙar fata, ba, a’a, kawai ba Balarabe bane, kuma shi ma ya san haka. Haka duk iya Turancin baƙar fata a Ingila ba za kira shi Ingilishi ba, sai dai ɗan ƙasar Ingila, domin Ingilishi (English) ƙabilace a Ingila tare da Sikotawa (Scottish), Irishawa (Irish) da kuma Welshawa (Welsh), kuma duk waɗannan Turawa ne, farar fata; babu baƙi a cikinsu. Su kansu a Ingila ɗin, zaka ji mutum na alfahari da ƙabilarsa – misali, duk da cewa shi fari ne, amma zai ce maka shi Ba’Irishe ne, ba Ingilishi ba. Saboda haka kamar Hausa, in ka ce English to ana nufin yaren da kuma Ƙabilar. Ta haka za a bambanta cewa “wannan mutumin British ne, amma fa ɗan ƙabilar Welshawa ne”

Bari in koma Najeriya. Idan, misali wani Bayarabe da matarsa suka bar ƙasar Yarabawa fiye da shekaru 100 da suka wuce, suka yada zango a wata unguwa a Kano suka yi zuri’a, to komai nisan zuri’ar da waɗannan iyayen zuri’a, duk a Yarabawa suke. Halin zamantakewar su zai iya sa waɗanda aka haifa daga baya basu ma san yaren iyayen nasu na asali ba, sai Hausa. Duk da haka, Yarabawa ne, domin salsalarsu ce. Idan dole sai an dangantasu da Hausa, to a iya kiransu abin da na ƙirƙiro da Hausawan Zamantakewa. Amma ba Hausawa bane, domin Hausa ta wuce yare, ƙabila ce, tare da al’adunta na musamman, da kuma ɗabi’o’inta. Mutum zai iya rungumar waɗannan domin ya zama Bahaushen Zamantakewa, amma ba zai zama Bahaushe ba, kamar yadda mutum zai iya karɓar rayuwar Larabawa domin ya zama ɗan, misali, Dubai, amma ba zai taɓa zama Balarabe ba in ba shi ba ne.

Wannan misalin ma ya fi kusa da Fulani. Kusan a ƙasar Hausa da yawa mutane na ikirarin su Fulani ne – amma ba su iya yaren Fillanci ba. Ƙirar halittar su, da kuma riƙe aƙidar pulaaku (aƙidar Fillanci), shi ne zai tabbatar da su a Fulani, duk da ba su iya yaren ba, sai Hausa zalla.

Idan iyayen salsar sun ƙi su koyawa zuri’ar su yaren su domin suna son su ɓace su zama Hausawa (ko kuma mazaunan inda suka sami kan su), wannan ruwansu, amma wannan ba zai kankare musu Yarabancin ko kuma Fultancin ba. Mu danganta da cewa komai daɗewar Bahaushe a Shagamu, ba zai taɓa tsammanin shi Bayarabe ne ba. Ta haka za a ga Hausawan Kamaru da Gana da Kwango, misali, waɗansu basa jin Hausar sosai, ko kuma suna yin Hausar wata iri, wacce ta bambanta da Hausar ƙasar Hausa, amma kowanne daga cikinsu zai danganta salsalarsa da wani gari a ƙasar Hausa.

Wannan yana daga cikin ban mamakin albarkar da Allah ya yi wa Hausa da Hausawa – kullum waɗanda ba Hausawa sai so suke a ɗauke su a matsayin Hausawa, duk da cewa suna da tasu ƙabilar – da aƙidodin – wacce ya kamata su ɗaukaka.

Ɗabi’a, Tada (Gargajiya) da kuma Al’adar Bahaushe

Tari da yawa in an yi maganar “al’adar Bahaushe” ana maganar ɗabi’u da tadar Bahaushe ne. Babban abin da ke kawo wannan muhawar shi ne ganin yadda kusan duk nazarin da ake yi wa Hausawa, ana yi ne daga turbar harshe, ba daga turbar mu’amala da tarbiyya ba. Wannan ya saɓa da yadda manazartar rayuwar al’umma ke nazarin sauran al’ummatan. Kuma kasancewa masu nazarin Hausawa na farko-farko sun yi daga wannan kusurwar ta nazarin harshe, sai aka ci gaba da wannan turbar. Ina mai fatan buɗe wata hanyar nazarin rayuwar Bahause a bisa alƙiblar nazarin rayuwar ɗan Adam ba kawai ta harshe ba.

Hanya ta farko ta barin waccan kusurwar nazarin ita ce bambanta ɗabi’ar Hausawa, tada (ko gargajiyar) Hausawa, da kuma al’adar Hausawa. Waɗannan rukunayen rayuwa dole a bambantasu kamar yadda masu nazarin salsalar al’umma (Anthropologists) suke yi wa sauran al’ummatan. Domin a samu kyakkyawar fahimta, ɗabi’a dai ita ce, social behavior; tada ko gargajiya kuma, customs and traditions; sannan al’ada kuma mores and midsets.

A bisa wannan ma’unin, ɗabi’a tana nufin yanayin zaman mutum, tada da gargajiya kuma na nufin yanayin da aka gada kaka da kakanni, wanda zai iya bambanta da yanayin zaman mutum a yanzu, ko kuma halin da mutum ya samu kansa. Al’ada kuma tana nufin sinadarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma tarbiyyarsa. Al’ada a gaba take da ɗabi’a, kuma zata iya jagoranta. Idan an ce mutum ba shi da al’ada mai kyau, ana nufin bashi da tarbiyya mai kyau, domin al’adar ko tarbiyyar sune suke gina shi a kan fasalin mutumin kirki, ko kuma “ɗan asali”.

Za a iya aron ɗabi’a da ma gargajiya, amma ba za a iya aron al’ada ba, domin ita al’ada tana tattare da ruhin mai ita; bayan ɗabi’a kuwa ta kan canza bisa yadda yanayin zama yakama; kai har ma aron ta ake yi, amma ba za a taɓa aron al’ada ba. Saboda haka za iya aron abubuwan sarrafa ɗabi’a, a gyarasu, a canza su, in kuma an gaji da su a zubar da su. Amma ba a aron al’ada domin ita al’ada tana liƙe ne da ruhin mai ita a matsayin sinadari.

A duk inda ake nazarin zamantakewar Bahaushe, dole sai ka ji ana ta cakuɗa waɗanan rukunayen zaman mutum -- ɗabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada. Wani lokaci in an ce al’ada, to ana nufin ɗabi’a; sannan kuma in an yi maganar ɗabi’a, saka ji lallai ba al’ada ake magana ba, ana maganar tada ne. Ya zama wajibi a bambanta kowanne da kawo bayanai da hujjoji domin su tallafawa bayanin.

Ɗabi’a da Zamanancin Bahaushe

Duk da na ganin kamar Bahaushe bagidaje ne, bana jin akwai ƙabilar da ta fi Bahaushe rungumar zamanin da ya sami kansa. Wannan ba zai zama abin mamaki ba domin ƙasar Hausa daɗaɗɗiyar matattara al’ummatai ce. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna ne ba, akwai su da yaron kasuwanci da fatauci. Ta haka sukan ci karo da abubuwa baƙi da yawa, daga yare da are-aren kalmomi, zuwa ire-iren abinci da kuma tufafi, kai har da ma sigar gine-gine. A duk lokacin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da wani abu sabo, dan-da-nan yake karɓarsa, in har ya yi daidai da abin da saba da shi. Idan kuwa bai daidata sahu da rayuwarsa ba, to bijire masa yake yi, komai kyaun sa. A bisa wannan tarihi na Bahaushe, babu wanda ya fi Bahaushe karbar zamani.
Ta wannan hanyar, da yawa daga cikin abubuwan da muke amfani da su, waɗanda ake ganin kamar aro ne, duk na sarrafa ɗabi’a ne, kuma da yawa na aron ne. Misali, Bahaushe bai san ya yi gini da kusurwa huɗu ba, sai da ya haɗu da Larabawa. Kafin wannan lokacin Bahaushe bai san tubali ba, a wajen Larabawan ya gani. Amma ya karɓi gini da tubali, daga baya da sauyin zamani ya zo, ya ke amfani da bulo, da farko da na ƙasa, daga baya ya koma na siminti. Wannan canjin yana nuna canjin ɗabi’ar Bahause ta gini, wanda dama da aro ya fara shi.
Haka kafin haɗuwar Bahaushe da Larabawa, abincinsa kusan ƙayyadadde ne – dambu, tuwo, zogale, ɗan wake, da sauransu. Haɗuwa da Larabawa ya canza ɗabi’ar cin abinsa ya fara cin gurasa, alkubus, algaragis, da sauransu. Yau in ya ce ya daina cin dambu – ra’ayi ne, ba Hausanci ba, domin takan yiwu a haifi Bahaushe a ƙasar da babu dambu ko kuma kayan sarrafa shi, kamar a ce Australiya – shike nan kuma sai a ce ba Bahaushe bane don ba ya cin dambu?

Sannan kuma babban abin da ya kawo ake ganin kamar ma babu wata ƙabila Hausawa, kuma Hausanci ai yarene, ba wani abu bane illa ganin yadda tabbas kam Bahaushe na da saurin aron abubuwa. Kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to yayi ne a matsayin makami domin hulɗa da waɗanda ya ara daga wajensu; kuma in abin bai yi masa ba, zubar da shi zai yi; in kuma ya yi masa, zai narkar da shi ya zama nasa, ta yadda ko shi kansa wanda ya bawa Bahaushe aron abin, ba zai iya gane shi ba. Amma duk abin da ya ara, abin sarrafawa ne – daga tufafi, zuwa dabarun dafa abinci, zuwa ire-iren abinci, kuma zuwa kalmomi. Duk waɗannan an aro su, ana kuma amfani da su, kuma in basu dace da al’ada ba, to zubar da su ake yi ta yin Allah-wadai da su. 

Babu inda Bahause ya nuna gwanintarsa ta aron abubuwa suka zama masarrafai gare shi kamar harshe. Bincike ya nuna cewa har ya zuwa 1960 kusan kashi 20 daga 100 na kalmomin Hausa da Fulanci daga Larabci suke.[8] Sannan kuma daga 1960 zuwa yanzu, an samu ƙarin waɗansu kalmomin da Bahaushe ya ara a cikin Larabci yadda abin zai kai kusan kashi 40 ko fiye daga cikin ɗari daga kalmomin da aka ara. 

Sannan sauran yararraki sun shigo cikin Hausa sosai ta yadda Bahaushe ya ari abubuwansu ya mayar nasa. Amma kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to kamar yadda na ce, abin sarrafawa ne, ba tsarin mu’amala ba. Misalai daga cikin yararrakin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da su, sannan kuma ya ari kalmominsu sun hada da Azbinanci, Fullatanci, Barbanci, da Nufanci. Ga jadawalin da ya nuna misalai daga cikin waɗannan are-aren kalmomin daga waɗansu yararrakin cikin Hausa:



Jadawali na 1: Are-Aren Kalmomi a Cikin Hausa[9]



Azbinanci

Fullatanci
Ayaran
ayari

Allah seini
alasaini (pl)
takarde
takarda

All reini
alaraini (pr)
takoba
takobi

Allah sabbi nane
alasubbinani (h)
cokal
cokali

kindirmu
kindirmo
kanwa
kanwa

bukkaro
bukka
ejaq
jaki

burtol
burtali
aurak
auraki

jalloru
jallo
akala
akala

burugal
burugali
azurf
azurfa

baff
baffa
mamaki
mamaki

kawu
kawu
ashiq
ice

goggo
gwaggo
tindi
turmi

ndottijo
dattijo
sabro
sauro

ndottaku
dattaku
teku
teku

mura
mura






Barbanci

Yarbanci

Nufanci
kasugu
kasuwa

paki
Kwaki

gulu
ungulu
tubo
turba

pano
kwano

gbamgba
agwagwa
sango
sango

agogo
agogo

kplaba
kwalba
fure
fure

apoti
akwati

iyelye
alele
tambari
tambari

gele
gyale

bente
bante
algaita
algaita

fshana
ashana



ganga
ganga

dokita
likita



birni
birni

patapata
kwata-kwata



goyi
gwani

pali
kwali



yarima
yarima

gangan
ganga






Shi kansa Turanci da ake ganin kamar yaren waɗansu keɓaɓɓu ne, bai samu ci gaba ba sai da ya ari kalmomi da yawa daga cikin yaren al’ummatan da Turawa suke hulɗa da su; domin Turawa, kamar Hausawa, ba zaune suke ba, a kwai su da yawo da kuma karɓar sabon abu. Misali daga cikin al’ummatan da Turawa suka ari kalmominsu domin gina Turanci na jadawali na ƙasa.



Jadawali na 2: Are-Aren Cikin Turanci



Turkish
Egypt
Arab
Indian
Mammoth
Pharaoh
Alcohol
Bungalow
Turkey
Gum
Hazard
Dam (n)
Vampire
Ebony
Cable

Coach
Oasis
Sugar
Malaysian
Kiosk
Ivory
Racket
Amok
Girl
Ammonia
Mattress
Ketchup
Beer
Embark
Magazine
Launch
Book

Algebra
Gong
King

Alcove




Saboda haka ashe aro ba wani baƙon abu ne a cikin ɗabi’ar Bahaushe, kuma tunda aron da yake yi yana tafiya da yadda ya samu kansa, dole a yarda Bahaushe na tafiya da zamani, ba wai bagidaje ne ba. Misali, cin abinci da hannun hagu da cokali mai yatsu, ɗabi’ar Banasare ce. Cin abinci da tsinkaye guda biyu ɗabi’ar Canis ce. Duk waɗannan da kyar zaka raba su da waɗannan ɗabi’un. Amma zaman Bahaushe a Hon Kon zai iya sa ya ari ɗabi’ar cin abinci da tsinkaye, domin yana ganin zai iya, ko kuma yana sha’awa. Wannan ba zai sa ya zama Canis ba, amma za a iya cewa ya bar tasa ɗabi’ar (ta cin abinci da hannu, domin ko cin abinci da cokali ma ba ɗabi’ar Bahaushe ba ne, don cokalin aro shi ya yi daga wajen Azbinawa), ya ari ta Canis, domin a wannan aron, babu yadda zai nasabanta shi da rayuwarsa. Amma kuma a wani misalin, babbar riga ba tufafin Bahaushe bane, amma yanzu babu Bahaushen da zai yarda babbar riga ba tasa ba ce saboda yadda ta dace da tsarin ɗabi’ar rayuwarsa.

Tada ko Gargajiya da Zamanancin Bahaushe

Tada, gargajiya, ko kuma customs and practices, tsare-tsaren rayuwar Bahaushe ne da ya gada kaka da kakanni. Da Musulunci ya zo, sai ya kawar da waɗansu, kamar tsafi da bautar gumaka, da shan giya da zina, da sauransu, ya kuma kyale waɗansu domin basu yi karo da addini ba, kamar tsare-tsaren haihuwa da sauran bukukuwan da suka haɗa da haihuwa. Duk da cewa rayuwa wacce aka gada shekara da shekaru, ba dole ne mutum ya yarda da ita ba, domin akwai ra’ayi a wajen inganta tada. Misali, matan Turawa basa wankan jego. Wannan sai matan Hausawa. Amma shi ma yanayi ne da kuma ra’ayi. Bahaushiyar da ke zaune a Ingila ba zata yi wankan jego ba, domin yin haka zai keta ƙa’idar kiwon lafiyar ɗan Adam a ƙasar. Saboda haka idan wannan Bahaushiyar ta ce ba za ta yi wankan jego ba, ba wai ta yar da tadar ta bane, kawai yanayin zamanta ba zai kyale ta ta ci gaba da wannan tadar bane. Sannan waɗansu matan basu da ƙarfin halin da zasu dinga shekawa kansu ruwan zafi, ko saboda rashin lafiya ba zasu iya wannan wankan jegon ba. Wannan ba zai fitar da su daga rukunin Hausawa ba, domin haka abin ya ɗauro musu.  

Duk da haka, waɗannan tadodin suma an yi musu kwaskwarima, tare da haɗowa da na waɗansu al’ummatan, a shigar da su cikin Hausa. Misali, matar da ta yi haihuwar fari tana zuwa gidansu ta ci gaba da wankan jego daga ranar suna ne. Amma Hausawa sun ari tadar Fulani ta wannan fannin na tafiya gida goyon ciki daga ciki na wata bakwai. 

Yin haka ya yi daidai, domin abin duk za a ce kana da zaɓi a kai, ko ɗabi’a, ko tada, to kana da hakkin juya shi ta yadda zaka iya aiwatar da shi ta yadda kake so, ko da ya ɓatar da surarsa ta ainihi, to dalilin yinsa na nan. Misali, ƙaurin jego na daga cikin tadodin Hausawa. A surarsa ta farko da kafuwan sa ake yi, a yi ganda, sannan a haɗa da kunun kanwa a aikawa maƙwabta da abokan arziki. Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai wannan ya canza, a ka koma yi da naman ƙaramar dabba, daga baya a ka koma yi dabino da kuma alewa. Sigar ta canza, amma maƙasudin, ko kuma manufar yin ƙaurin, bata canza ba. 

Saboda haka in akwai wata tada ta ta saɓawa Musulunci, to wannan bai kamata a ɗaukakata ba. In kuwa bata saɓawa Musulunci ba, to in dai zata amfana jama’a ta ko samar da aiki, ko ƙarfafa zumunci, a iya ɗaukakata, ko da an canza mata siga. A wannan, tadodin Bahaushe sun haɗa da tsare-tsaren rayuwarsa daga haihuwa zuwa aure, zuwa mutuwa. Kowacce ƙabila a duniya tana da abin da ta tanada na sarrafa waɗannan nau’o’in na rayuwa. 

Al’ada da Hausanci

Saboda haka da yawa daga cikin karon da a ke yi na ma’anar al’ada, ana nufin ko ɗabi’a, ko kuma tada. Da yawa daga masu nazarin rayuwar Bahaushe suna musayan ma’anar al’ada da kuma tada ko kuma ɗabi’a. Domin tunatarwa, na fassara al’ada a matsayin sindarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma mores and mindsets, da Turanci.

Wannan sindarin mu’amalar shi kan fitar da abin da za kira mutumin kirki, wanda kuma halayyace, ko kuma tarbiyya. A taƙaice, al’ada hali ne, ba sarrafi ba. Wannan ma’aunin ya fito daga hannun masana da suka nazarci rayuwar Bahause a zamanin da ake ganin babu yawan cuɗanya tsakanin Hausawa da waɗansu hanyoyin sadarwa da za ce sun zama rariyar ɗaukan waɗannan halayen. Kuma tun kafin zuwan Musulunci, Hausawa na da waɗannan halayen – da Musulunci ya zo, ya inganta su ne.  

A binciken da manazarta suka yi, an gano cewa al’adar Bahause, a bisa wannan ma’aunin na ma’anar al’ada, na tattare a sinadaran mu’ala guda 21. Waɗannan sun haɗa da:



Hausanci
Fulatanci (Pulaaku)
1.      Adalci
1.      Ne'ɗdaku (Jan Aji)
2.      Amana
2.      Daraja
3.      Dattako
3.      Ardungal (Shugabanci)
4.      Gaskiya
4.      Marugo Na'i (Mallakar Shanu)
5.      Haƙuri
5.      Enɗam (Kirki)
6.      Hankali

7.      Hikima

8.      Juriya da jarumta

9.      Kama sana’a

10.  Karamci

11.  Kawaici

12.  Kunya/Kara

13.  Ladabi

14.  Mua’amala

15.  Mutumci

16.  Rashin tsegumi

17.  Riƙon addini

18.  Zumunta




Waɗannan ba sune kaɗai ba. Dole za a iya samun waɗansu sinadiran; amma dai a waɗannan masana kamar su Kirk-Greene[10] da kuma Zarruƙ[11] suka gina sinadarin al’adar Bahaushe da kuma Bafillace, tunda yanzu an zama ɗaya. Saboda da haka a wannan ma’auni na su, al’adar Bahaushe ita ce al’adar mutumin kirki a cikin al’ummar Hausawa. Takan yiwu sauran ƙabilun suma suna da ire-iren waɗannan, amma abin da ya fi damun mu a nan, shi ne yadda rayuwar Hausawa take, domin da mutum ya yi abu zaka ji an ƙwabe shi ana cewa, “haba, sai kace ba Bahaushe ba?” Wannan ya nuna ashe akwai ma’aunin Hausanci, ba wai kawai a tada ko ɗabi’a ba. 

In an lura duk waɗannan sinadirayen sun dogara ne a zuciyar mutum, amma suna amfani da ɗabi’a domin a aiwatar da su – shi yasa a ke ganin ɗabi’a da al’ada kamar ɗaya ne. Misali, mutumci ne mutum ya sa tufafi masu kyau. Amma a ɗabi’ance, zai iya sa tufafin da suka dace da yadda ya sami kansa. Amma kuma ko da a haka ne, saka tufafin zai dogara ga shekaranusa – wanda kuma an jawo dattaku ciki. Misali, idan mutum ɗan shekara 50 mai sha’awar kallon wasan ƙwallon ƙafa, ya saka wandon jins da T-shat ta wani ɗan bal, da kuma hula hana-sallah, to gani za a yi ya karya dokokin al’adar Bahause ta hanyar zubar da mutumcinsa, da kuma  rashin nuna dattaku, duk da cewa babu wata illa ga kayan da ya sa, domin sun kare tsiracinsa, sun dace da sha’awarsa ta kallon bal, kuma duk da cewa a wata alƙaryar ta Musulumi (misali, Masar), za a iya samun taƙwararsa ya saka waɗannan kayan, kuma ya samu karɓuwa. 

Saboda haka al’adar Bahaushe ba wai gine-ginen da ko na zamani ba ne. Ba wai iya dafa wani abincin da ko na yanzu ba ne; ba kuma saka tufafin da ko na yanzu bane. Al’adar Bahaushe yanayin hali ne wanda ya fitar da shi dabam da sauran jama’a, ya zama duk inda yake yana wakilitar duk wani mutum da za a kira Bahaushe, kuma ta wani fannin, ko da Bamaguje ne. Misali, Bahaushen da ke zaune a Ingila ba dole ne ya sa manyan kaya irin waɗanda zai sa a ƙasar Hausa ba. Amma yana da halayyar Bahaushen da komai jimawa a ƙasar da yayi, za a san lallai Bahaushe ne. Saboda haka don bai sa manyan kaya ba, wannan halin zaman wurin ne ya kama haka, amma sinadarin halayensa na Bahaushe suna tare da shi, sai dai ya bijire musu, ko kuma ya dakatar da su saboda waɗansu dalilai

Bari in ba da misalina na ƙarshe da nishaɗin hululu. Babu abin da aka fi yawan sakashi a cikin kwandon da ba nasa ba kamar rawa da waƙa. Kusan duk mai yin magana a kan rawa da waƙa zaka ji ya ce ai al’adar Bahaushe ce. Ina da ja a nan. Rawa da waƙa ba al’adar Bahaushe ba ce, domin ba ta zama tilas a kan kowanne Bahaushe ba, saɓanin halayyar al’ada, waɗanda suka wajaba a kan duk wanda ke da ikirarin shi Bahaushe ne. 

Idan aka bi ma’aunin gwajin al’ada, to tabbas rawa da waƙa ba al’dar Bahaushe bane. Hasali ma dai yinsu na runa kusan rashin duk jerin ayoyin tarbiyyar da aka gina al’adar Bahaushe da su. Rawa da waƙa sana’a ne, saboda haka tadodi ne. Kuma ko a sana’ance, suna da da muhallinsu; ta wani fannin ma gadonsu ake yi, ba shigege ba. Bugu da ƙari a rayuwar Bahaushe, mawaƙa da makaɗa an ɗauke su a matsayin maroƙa. Su kansu mawaƙan, kamar Sani Ɗan Indo, suna nuna cewa basa fatan ‘ya’yansu su gaje su a wannan sana’ar ta su, duk da sun yi kuɗi, kuma sun yi tashe a cikinta.[12] Ganin haka ne yasa a ke nisanta al’adar Bahaushe ta tarbiyya, da rawa da waƙa.[13]

A wannan ruwayar, rawa da waƙa ba su da matsayin rayuwar yau da kullum, kamar al’ada, saboda basu zama dole ba. Akwai rayuwar da za a iya yi babu rawa da waƙa, kuma a zauna lafiya, domin wani ma baya sonsu ko kaɗan. Amma babu yadda za a yi rayuwa babu, misali, ladabi, dattaku, karamci, amana, da sauransu. Ashe saboda haka rawa da waka tunda basu zama tilas a rayuwar Bahaushe ba, ba za a kirasu al’adar Bahaushe ba.

Saboda haka in ka nuna mutum ya shiga bala’i, sai ya ɓigire da rawa da waƙa, to wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin a al’adance, zai yi tawakkali ne. Haka kuma komai farin cikin da zai samu ga mutum, ba za kaga yaje wajen mahaifiyarsa yana yi mata rawa da waƙa ba; zai durƙusa ne ya sanar da ita abin da rayuwarsa ke ciki, in har ta kai sai ya faɗa mata. Kuma komai soyayyar da mutum yake yiwa matarsa, babu yadda zaka ce al’adar Bahaushe ce ya dinga rera mata waƙa, ko don wa’azi ko don nishaɗi. Ita kanta in ya fara ma zata ɗauka ko ya haukace ne!

Amma a tadance, lokacin biki, suna ko wani taro, in mutum yana so, zai iya tara makaɗa da mawaƙa a cashe har gari ya waye. Wannan shi ya so. Amma a sigar zaman yau da kullum, ko su kansu da sana’arsu ce rawa da waƙa ba haka suke yinta ba, domin su ma ba al’adarsu ba ce.

Saboda haka ɗaukaka al’adar Bahaushe, ɗaukaka addinin Musulunci ne, domin al’adar Bahaushe gaba ɗayanta na cikin Musulunci. 

Wakilcin Bahaushe a Hanyoyin Sadarwa na Zamani

Bari in rufe wannan ɗan gajeren jawabin nawa da waigen wakilincin al’adun Hausawa da addini a cikin adabin zamani. Zan ɗauki Finafinan Hausa a matsayin adabin zamani mai tafiya.

Fim wata hanya ce ta haskaka al’umma a da ko kuma a yanzu. Babban maƙasudin yin fim shi ne jawo hankalin jama’a ga waɗansu abubuwa da ke gudana a rayuwar zahiri, da yin ƙalubale ga ɗorewar waɗannan abubuwan. A taƙaice, idan mutum ya ce zai yi fim, yana da niyya ya wayar da kan jama ta yadda zai isar a saƙonsa ta hanyar jawo hankalinsu ga lura da muhimancin saƙonninsa. Wannan shi ne manufar yin fim daga waɗanda suka ƙirƙiro sana’ar, ba wai manufar fim daga yadda ‘yan sana’ar na ƙasar Hausa suka ɗauka ba – domin sau da yawa a cikin hira da ake yi da ‘yan san’ar finafinan Hausa sun ce ba don faɗakarwa suke yin fim ba, sai don neman kuɗi.[14] 

Wannan babu aibu, domin in dai za a bi inganttacciyar hanya a nemi kuɗi, yana da kyau. Amma babban saɓani a nan shi ne maƙasudin neman kuɗin. Rini, misali, shi ma sana’a ce, kamar fim. Amma babu marinin da zai ce da kai yana rini ne domin ya wakilci Hausawa. Haka ma duk maƙeri, ko manomi, ko mai sayar da yaduka, da sauransu. Inda fim ya bambanta, kuma a ka saka ido a kai, shi ne ikirarin wakilcin rayuwar waɗansu mutane da a ke yi ta hanyarsa. Idan da fim bai zamanto hanyar wakiltar Hausawa ba ne, to da babu wanda zai damu da sana’ar, kamar yadda a yanzu ba zaka taba jin an yi wata bita a kan sayar da tsire ba!

Tari da yawa in ana taƙaddama tsakanin jama’ar gari, manazarta da ‘yan fim, kowa maganar wakilcin al’adar Hausawa yake yi. Abin da ya kawo wannan kuwa saboda kowa na fassara al’ada yadda ya fahimce ta. Ina fata daga yau an sami wani abin ƙalubale a kan rabe-raben da ke tsakanin ɗabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada.

Babban abin da ya jawo dalilin damuwa da wakilcin Bahaushe a sigar finafinan ba wani abu bane illa ganin cewa da harshen Hausa a ke waɗannan finafinan. Yin amfani da harshen Hausa ya nunawa mai kallo cewa rayuwar Hausawa a ke haskakawa, kuma a ke wakilta. Ganin haka ya sa dole masu harshen su nuna damuwarsu in su a ganinsu ba a wakilce su daidai a wani fim ba. Tari da yawa ƙalubalen ba ya ga ɗabi’a, ko canja sigar tada; yana ga al’ada, wanda ya shafi tarbiyya. Ba za a samu ci gaba ba dole sai an zauna an yarda da ma’anar al’ada ta yadda kowa zai gamsu. Abin mamakin shi ne sauran al’ummatan da ke haskaka rayuwarsu ta hanyar fim, kamar Yarabawa da Ibo, basu da wannan taƙaddarmar; hasali ma yaba musu a ke yi a kan yadda kullum a finafinansu suke ɗaukaka tadodinsu da al’adunsu.  

Kamar yadda na ce, ƙalubalen ba ya ga canjin ɗabi’a ko tada. Idan mutum ya zauna a tebur ya ci abinci, ba wai ya bar rayuwar Bahaushe bane, shi kansa a zauna a gini mai kusurwa huɗu ba na Bahaushe bane, ara ya yi daga wajen Larabawa. Idan Bahaushe ya ci cek a fim ba wai ya nuna Turanci ba ne, ai yana da gireba, wacce ita ma cek ce, amma daga wajen Larabawa ya aro, sai dai kawai a ce yin amfani da girebar ya fi a yi amfani da cek ɗin, domin a inganta ita girebar, tun ma ba ga waɗanda basu santa ba. 

Idan an ce babban mutum a fim bai sa babbar riga ba, ai wannan ba aibu bane, ita kanta babbar rigar ba ta Bauhaushe ba ce, aro ta a ka yi daga wajen mutanen ƙasar da yanzu a ke kira Western Sahara (wani yanayi na Buzaye). Idan an ce Bahaushe na cin abinci da cokali, wannan ba wani abu bane; da da hannu yake cin abinci, da ya samu cokali daga wajen Azbinawa ya ga ya fi tsabta ya ci abinsa da wannan cokalin. Kazalika nuna mutane a manyan motoci ba wai nuna bijirewar Bahaushe bane – da jaki da mota duk ɗaya ne a rayuwar Bahaushe domin duk abubuwar hawa ne da aka aro su, amfani da kowanne ya danganta ga tatttalin arzikin mutum. 

Duk waɗannan ba sune tushen ƙalubalen wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe ba. Bari mu ga waɗansu misalan keta wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe bisa wannan ma’aunin.  Misali, mutum ya mari sarikinsa. A wannan babu ladabi, biyayya, kara, karamci, dattaku, ko da kuwa shi sirikin shi ya jawo a mare shi. Keta al’ada ne ‘ya ta ce da mahaifinta, “kayi kukan jini ma”, saboda an nuna rashin ladabi. Keta al’ada ne a nuna mutum da iyayensa suna zaune duk a kujera, saɓanin shi ya zauna a ƙasa, domin in ya yi sahu da su ba a lokacin sallah ba, to ya nuna rashin ladabin Bahaushe.  Idan a ka nuna basarake da rawaninsa yana rawa a cikin mata, wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin ya nuna wannan basaraken ya zubar da mutuncinsa, ko da yana haka a cikin gidansa tsakanin shi da matansa, wannan ba haka yake a cikin jama’ar da sarautarsa ke wakilta ba. 

A wannan babu maganar wani zamani, ci gaba, rage duhun kai na Bahaushe da sauransu domin wai a canja al’adar Bahaushe a zamanantar da shi. Rashin nuna kyakkyawar tarbiyar basa daga cikin al’adar Bahaushe. Za a iya nuna rashin al’ada a gidan kara (wanda shi ne orijina na Bahaushe), sannan kuma a nuna tsabagen al’ada a katafaren gidan zamani. Saboda haka keta al’ada ko kuma nuna al’ada bai tsaya ga gine-gine, abinci, tufafi, motoci, kayan zamani da sauransu ba. Inganta sinadarin mu’amala na tarbiyya shi ne al’ada. In a fim a inganta waɗannan, to an wakili Hausa da Musulunci. In kuwa ba a yi ta, to a wakilci Hausa da Musulunci ba. A wannan ne babban ƙalubalen ke gaban mu – yadda za a kiyaye al’adun da muke tinƙaho da su a zamanance.



[1] H.A.S. Johnson, The Fulani Empire of Sokoto, London, 1967, p. 4-6. Sannan kuma a duba Abdullahi Mahdi, The Hausa Factor in West African History. ABU Press, 1978.
[2] Abdullahi Smith, “Some consideration relating to the formation of States in Hausa-land”. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Vol V No 1, December 1970, p. 331.
[3] G.R. Niven, A Short History of Nigeria. Longman, Nigeria, 1971, p. 39.
[4] H. R. Palmer, Sudanese Memoirs, London, Frank Cass, 1928, p. 95.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Neil S. Skinner, “The Origin of the name Hausa”, Africa, 1968,Vol XXXVII, No 3, p. 256.
[7] Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Dangantakar Al’ada da Addini: Tasirin Musulunci Kan Rayuwar Hausawa Ta Gargajya. M.A. Thesis, Department of Nigerian Languages, April 1982, p. 94.
[8] Aliyu Abubakar, Al Thakafatul Arabiyyati Fi Naijiriya: Min Aam 1750 ilaa 1960. Arabic Literature in Nigeria: From 1750 to 1960. PhD thesis, ABU Zaria, 1972. pp 371-469; wanda a ka sarrafa a mtsayin Aliyu Abubakar, The Arabic Culture in Nigeria, Beirut, Lebanon, AbdulHafiz Al-Bassid, 1972.
[9] Domin ƙarin bayani, a duba Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, “Are-aren kalmomi cikin Hausa”, in Yahaya, I.Y. and Rufa’i, A. (eds) Studies in Hausa Language, Literature and Culture, The First Hausa International Conference. Center for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University, Kano, 1978, pp 94-116; Neil Skinner, “Loans in Hausa and Pre-Hausa: Some Etymologies” Berliner Afrikanistische Vortrage 21 (1980) 169-202; Joseph Greenberg, “Linguistic Evidence for the Influence of Kanuri on the Hausa”, Journal of African History 1:2 (1960).
[10] Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. Mutumin Kirki: The Concept of the Good Man in Hausa. The Third Annual Hans Wolff Memorial Lecture,  prepared by the African Studies Program, Indian university, Bloomington, Indiana, 1974. The lecture itself was delivered on April 11 1973.
[11] Habib Alhassan, Usman Ibrahim Musa, Rabi’u Mohammed Zarruƙ, Zaman Hausawa. Kano, Islamic Publications Bureau, 1982, 1988.
[12] Duba hira da a ka yi da Sani Ɗan Indo, mai kiɗan kuntigi, a cikin, Annur, Vol 1, August 2001, shafi na 48.
[13] Don samun ƙarin bayani a kan matsayin maroƙa a ƙasar Hausa kafin ‘yanci daga mulkin mallaka na Turawan Ingila, a dubi maƙalar M.G. Smith, “The Social Functions and Meaning of hausa Praise-Singing”, a Africa, Vol 27, 1957, shafuka na 26-44.
[14] Misali, a dubi hirar da a ka yi da Najja’atu Abubakar, ‘yar jihar Kogi, tauraruwar fim ɗin Zabari, a mujallar FIM, Afrilu, 2005, shafi na 17, “Neman kuɗi na zo, ba faɗakarwa ba”.